RelationaldialecticstheoryRelational Dialectics Theory Baxter and Montgomery Relational Dialectics TheoryPartners in a relationship experience ongoing tensions between contradictory impulses.People can become comfortable in believing inconsistent things about the relationships in which they are involved.The dialectical approach is characterized by framing contradictions as tension in relationshipsRelationships are not linear.1.Relationships swing back and forth between contradictory desires held by one or both partners.
Baxter and Montgomery reject the use of the term development to characterize relationships due to the assumption associated with the term as being linear.3.They prefer to view relationships in terms of "complexity," as opposed to labeling them with regard to their "progress." Contradiction is fundamental to relational life.1.
The "pushes" and "pulls" of the tensions in relational life are ongoing.2.Communication is the primary tool that partners use to manage these tensions.
Elements of dialectics Totalitypeople in a relationship are interdependent and interrelatedContradictionthe oppositions that are experienced in relationships Motionchanging nature of relationships over time Praxishumans are rational decision makers that make choices Autonomy and Connectionsimultaneous desires to maintain our independence and to fulfill our need for affiliation and inclusion.Openness and protectionWe have conflicting desires to be open and reveal personal information to our relational partner but to maintain a sense of privacy by keeping some information to ourselves.Six ways married couples manage this tension (HoppeNagao & TingToomey, 2002) six ways married couples manage this tension (HoppeNagao & TingToomey, 2002) Novelty and predictabilityWe have conflicting desires to experience the comfort of stability and the excitement of change in relationships.
This distinguishes RDT from other theories such as Uncertainty Reduction TheoryContextual dialecticsthe tensions resulting from the place of the relationship within the culture.Rawlins identifies two contextual dialectics.1.Public and private 2.The real and the ideal Four strategies to manage dialectical tensions.Cyclic alternation Siblings may favor autonomy in their teen years but seek closeness in their adult relationships.Segmentation A married couple who own and operate a business together might stress predictability in the workplace but novelty when they are together at home.
StrategiesSelection Partners who choose to be close at all times, doing all activities together, are ignoring their need for autonomy.Integration arriving at a compromise between the opposing tensions or a "happy medium".
Friendship01Ithaca College, Park School of Communications Graduate Program in Communications William K.Rawlins Eskil SivertsenDecember 20037C2 Candlewyck Park, Ithaca, NY 14850 b: http://home.no.net/eskils The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
This essay seeks to review and evaluate William K.Rawlins (1992) dialectical theory of friendship (DTF).The essay consists an overview of the theorys major features and attempt to identify which paradigm it reflects in its approach to the subject matter.Paof existing literature on the theory.In part three, the theory will be assessed using tools for theory analysis, levision sitcom, As the name suggests, the dialectical thbetween contradictory elements in relationshiin life, represent a complex sedialectical contradictionsbeing friends.
The theory attempts appreciate and understand the complex nature Overview of the Dialectical Theory of Friendships upies a marginal position in American society because it is different from all other socially and formally established types of economic contracts as are work and professireligious rights of marriage, and is regarded as different from the more possessive and sexual nature of romantic love.In essence, friendship has no clear, formalized public
reality it may often compete with, complement, or merge The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
friendship is an institutionalized non-institution (p.
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The primary issues raised by dialectical theory concern types of dialectics and the means by ... Some examples from our ... cussion of relational dialectics ... (csudh.edu)
vagrant position in society is its moral character as a
transcend all formally institutionalized roles, and it pervades the larger social order by fulfilling both individual
Rawlins (1992) identifies two general classes of dialectics that occur in friendships: (1) contextual and (2) interactional.Contextual dialectics describe the place y, and interactional dialectics deal with the ambiguities of everyday communication in any friendship.Contextual dialectics identify cultural and societal conceptions that frame and of friendship must mediate two contextual dialectics: (1) the ate.It is something that is worked out between two nd means, and the theory argues there is a acceptable manner; Every person plays a number of different roles depending on The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
situations and contexts, and what may be appropriate in a private context may be frowned
The dialectic of the ideal and the real abetween the cultural ideals and expectations associated with friendship, and the actual argues that idealized images of friendship develop in the public domain and thus shape friendship.
He argues that an ideal friendship in American culture is a voluntary, personal, affective ties, howevees of a romantic relationship.The extent to which the above combination of qualities isreality depends on their social circumstances.With parallels to Platos rm is frequent an ideal friendship comprises an ongoing cial circumstances.To complicate matters further, measures taken to preserve certain prized aspects of a friendship may subvert other cherished values.
For example, a person may deliberately and strategically breach the code of honesty between friends to protect the others sensitivity about an issue.Naturally, the mesuggests that the ideals are fictitious measures in the first place.
The terminology of friendships can pivot between moral and tactical meanings.Because of the idealistic connotations of friendship in American culture, speaking of The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
someone as a friend draws on cherished categthe term friendship may also be used deliberately in the interesth manage and regenerate the tensions between its ideal and real forms.In summary, friends may attempt to communicate in ways that conform to what society sees as acceptable public behavior, as well as to the ideals of friendship in their era or social circumstances, but in doing so they create, and are forced to manage, 1.1 Interactional dialectics
Interactional dialectics address the ambiguities of everyday communication in any ally fraught with ambiguity, both in the friends attempts to interpreciety at large.
Therefore, friends are constantly faced with the challenge of behaving and interpreting behaviors in a manner that preserves an assumption offriendship.Identifying communication as the means by which interactional dialectics are independent and the freedom to be dependeinstrumentality, (3) the dialectic of judgment and acceptance, and (4) the dialectic of The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
In forming a friendship, each person grants the other a pair of contradictory interests without interference from the friend.Conversely, the freedom to be dependent is
help in times of need.Sometimes these interests may be conflicting.For example, if one friend has made plans at a time when the other is in need of help the options collide.
Also, any general unbalance between the likely to create conft more than the other friend can appreciate.
The dialectic of affection and instrumentality describes the tension between seeing a friend as an end in itself or as a means to another end.With clear links to Aristotles
argues that affection is assowhereas instrumentality tends to connote false ones.
As such, this dialectic may cause people to think twice about asking a friend for a favor, because they do not want to be continuum between affection and instrumentcaring or instrumental aid.
Conversely, friends may help friends unselinstrumental gains.As such, displays of geversus obligations may be differently interpreted and shape the characteristics of a
The dialectic of judgment and acceptantween judgment and acceptance is mediated by how much friends are perceived to care about one another.
The The Dialectical Theory of Friendship
theory argues that friends will generally not criticize each others flaws because they care enough to disregard or even accept them.In other instances,