International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism
Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece Georgia Yfantidou, George Costa, Maria Michalopoulos Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace Correspondence with: Georgia Yfantidou firstname.lastname@example.org Thessalonikis 9, 69100 Komotini GreeceInternational Journal of Sport Management Recreation & Tourism, Vol.1, pp.14-30, 2008
2008 I.J.S.Ma.R.T.All rights reserved.ISSN: 1791-874X To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/
DOI: 10.5199/ijsmart-1791-874X-1b International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 15 Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece Abstract This research is set in the context of tourism marketing and refers specifically to tourist roles.A representative sample of 1675 tourists brings to light the tourist role preference in Greece, and allows us to examine the possible differences between men and women of varying ages.The Tourist Role Preference Scale (TRPS) was used for this research.The findings of this study support the existence of Yiannakis and Gibsons 15 leisure tourist roles in Greece.Sun lover, anthropologist, archaeologist, independent mass tourist and escapist were found to be the most prevalent tourist roles in Greece.
A comparison between gender and age revealed more similarities than differences.TRPS was proven reliable and valid for the sample used in this study and the questions of the scale represented significantly the tourist roles measured.
Keywords: tourist roles, typology, tourism, sport tourism, MDS, PCA International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 16 Tourist Roles, Gender and Age in Greece: A Study of Tourists in Greece Introduction With the increase in tourism in the 1990s, the tourism industry commenced to be viewed as a highly specialized commodity.
In light of this trend, researchers focused on
exploring the experience of tourists, and the importance of the tourist experience for tourists (Yfantidou G., Costa G., Mavrommatis G.
& Michalopoulos M., 2008; Foo A.-J., Mcguiggan R.& Yiannakis A., 2004; Gibson H.& Yiannakis A., 2002).
Tourism as a special form of leisure and free time has unique characteristics, where concrete types of tourism can be checked based on the behavior of free time (Moore K., Cushman G.& Simmons D., 1995).The majority of research suggests that men participate more in all forms of tourism types, and at all ages (Gibson, 1998; Frew E.
& Shaw R., 1999).
Thus, new forms of tourism were generated such as sport tourism, adventure tourism, and ecotourism.The terms "special form of tourism" (Weiler and Hall, 1992), "tourism focused on activities" (Wahab, 1975; Gartner, 1996), and "tourist roles" (Cohen, 1972; Pearce, 1985; Yiannakis and Gibson, 1992) have been used in order to describe the constantly increasing types of tourism.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the 15 leisure tourist roles devised by Yiannakis and Gibson (date needed) exist in Greece today, and to determine the tourist role preference for men and women of different ages.The dependent variables are the tourist roles and the independent variables are gender and age.
Null Hypothesis: No statistically significant differences exist between age and gender of tourists, concerning the high preference of tourist roles.Alternative hypothesis: Statistically significant differences exist between age and gender of tourists, concerning the high preference of tourist roles.
Tourist Roles Cohen (1972) was one of the first sociologists to propose a typology to conceptually clarify the term tourist.
His four-fold typology- the drifter, the explorer, the individual mass, and the organized mass- is based on the degree of institutionalization of the tourist.This classification is often cited in academic studies, and attempts have been made to develop and refine it.Based on the study of Cohen, Pearce (1982) identified specific behaviors associated with each travel role.
Pearce (1982) studied the
tourists such as the purchase of
luxury, the International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 17 observation of
and fellow, and the seeking of life meaning through travels or free time.This approach produced fifteen relative tourist roles (the simple tourist, the traveler, the vacationer, the jetsetter, the one that travels for business, the immigrant tourist, the tourist that relates to natural environment and protects it, the explorer, the tourist that travels for religious reasons, the educational tourist, the anthropologist, hippie, the sport tourist, the journalist who covers for his/her country certain events, and finally the pilgrim tourist).
According to the above roles a new scale was created, which include all the above roles in five main categories: the nature tourist, the spiritual tourist, the pleasure seeker tourist through travels, the tourist which prefers the luxury, and the tourist that wants new cultures and new experiences.
Mo et al.(1993), also used and extended the typology of Cohen by creating a three dimensional measurement scale of twenty questions that was proved reliable and valid.This scale was named International Tourist Role Scale - (ITR).
The dimensions of this scale were: Destination Oriented Dimension (DOD), Tourist Services Dimension (TSD), and Social Contact Dimension (SCD).Jiang et al.(2000), also utilized the ITR scale, and proved its a reliable scale that properly identified three conceptual dimensions of Cohens (1972) international tourist typology and successfully provided measures of novelty-seeking preferences on the three dimensions.The revised 16-item ITR is a more parsimonious instrument that provides equally adequate, if not more precise, measures for each of the three novelty dimensions derived from Cohens international tourist role typology.It should be acknowledged, however, that the three factors of the new 3-factor, 16-item solution of the ITR explained only 38.5% of the total variance for the sample, while with the original 20 items, a 5-factor solution explained nearly 5% more of the total variance.The content validity of the ITR thus needs to be improved if the scale is to be used alone.
Smith (1989) categorized the tourists in five categories: the explorers, the elite tourists, the classic tourists, the mass tourists and the charter tourists.He pointed out that from the explorer to the charter tourists the probabilities of negative effects at destinations are increasing, while if the number of tourists remains small, the probabilities for positive effects increase.In addition, Lee and Crompton (1992) developed a scale of tourist innovation, which consisted of 21 questions and four dimensions that prologues as reliable, constant, and valid; and evaluates the psychological framework of innovation.
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 18 During the same year Yiannakis and Gibson (1992) devised a comprehensive classification of leisure tourists and designing the Tourist Roles Preference Scale (TRPS).Some years later Gibson (1994) reported that the preference of tourist roles changes by age.Some roles as the Action Seeker and the Thrill Seeker decrease in preference with age while the Anthropologist and the Organized Mass tourist increase in preference with age.Other roles such as the Escapist and the Independent Mass tourist remain constant in preference regardless of age.In addition, women appear to prefer traveling with friends and children while selecting women-oriented activities.
TRPS was the measurement scale that was used for the dissertation of Attle Simon Paul (1996), where he identified the tourist destination attributes preferred by individuals within each of the eleven tourist role market segments identified.
Murdi (2001) added two more tourist roles: ecotourist and nature lover.Gibson & Yiannakis (2002) presented again the latest version of TRPS and identified 15 tourist roles.TRPS was also used in a similar study in Australia, which indicated that the items of TRPS are significant in representing the tourist roles they intend to measure (Foo, McGuiggan & Yiannakis, 2004).Wickens (2002), based on the typology of Cohen (1972), conducted a research study at Chalkidiki, Greece, concerning mass tourists and investigated the different types of tourist experiences using semi-structured interviews and participant observations.Gursoy et al.(2003), presented a measurement scale of 16 questions and applied the multidimensional consumer involvement profile (CIP), developed by Laurent and Kapferer (1985) for leisure tourists at international vacation destinations.
The results of the above study supported the multidimensional nature of tourists involvement without revealing the factors discussed by Laurent and Kapferer.The revealed factors were three: the pleasure/interest, the probability of risk and the importance of risk.
Mohsin (2005) describes twelve tourist behaviors using a different scale of measurement.These tourist behaviors are: Active, Discovering Nature, Quest of experience, Ethnocentrism, Language barrier, Relaxation, Physical activity, Leisure, Novelty, Luxury, Relationships, and Australophilia.
Moreover, Pritchard et al.(2006) presented the analysis IPA-Important Performance, a quantitative approach for rating consumer evaluations.Applications of this technique covered a wide variety of products such as tourism product (destination visit) and service settings
.This process consists of three steps: (1) the researcher identifies a set of features or attributes of the product, (2) International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 19 the consumers are surveyed and asked two questions about each attribute, and (3) the average importance and performance scores are calculated for each attribute.
After the classification of tourists and environment/destination (activities and experiences that are sought and offered), an effective blending can be achieved between the tourists experiences and the destinations (Pearce & Cook, 1987).
For Mehmetoglu (2007), a definition based on motivation is more appropriate for theoretical forums, while the activity-based definitions better serve the needs of the tourism industry.Moreover, rather than understanding tourism as a sphere in which motivations and activities are entirely separate from the worlds of work, it is necessary to consider the continuities with everyday life as well as the transformations that tourists perform.For instance, it has been proposed that notions such as the performance of duty can equally apply to many of the performative conventions of tourism, but also, the notion of getting away from it all during a period that is extraordinary, generates the taking on of transgressive roles.
The dangers of focusing on kinds of tourists rather than forms of tourism has been previously identified (Edensor, 2000).Methodology Sample Data consisted of a stratified sample by age and gender of 1675 tourists from about fifty countries who visited Greece in summer (June-July-August 2007).
The range of age was from 17 years old to 80 years old (Mean=36 years).The sex of the participants varied from 773 men and 845 women (missing values 57).Roughly half were married (45.1%), while singles/never married were (43.7%).The majority were employed full time (61.9%), while 18.9% were students.
As far as education is concerned, the majority were graduates of university or a 4-year college (32%).Annual family income varied from 20.000-60.000 for 48.1% of the participants.Questionnaire The questionnaire is based on the Tourist Roles Preference Scale of Gibson and Yiannakis (2002), and translated in Greek, German and Russian (control of cross-cultural validity) by Yfantidou, Costa & Michalopoulos, (2007) as Geisinger (1994) and Sperber (2004) proposed.
Having the questionnaire in four languages covered the majority of tourists visiting the region.The questionnaire included 89 Likert Questions or closed-ended questions that recorded: (1) a description of tourists activities, (2) a description of vacation destination, (3) an examination of major human needs, (4) demographical and personal data and, (5) certain destination preference.
International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 20 Process The questionnaires were distributed at the two main airports in Greece: Eleftherios Venizelos at the city of Athens and Macedonia airport at the city of Thessaloniki.
The questionnaires were distributed to the foreign tourists after check in at the airport when departing from Greece, and for Greek tourists in transit to their final destination in Greece after their vacation.The delimitation of this research is that the sample was collected only during summer as security regulations at the airports did not allow for the continuation of the research during other time periods.
Results and Discussion Demographic Frequency analysis was used for the questions that concern demographic characteristics.Age was measured with the ten life stages that Levinson (1996), proposed (Mean=36 years) and additionally Gibsons model (1994) of life eras, was used resulting in three categories: 17-39 (55.4%), 40-59 (25%) and over 60 (6.8%).
Missing values represented 12.9% of the sample.About half were married 45.1%, while single/never been married were 43.8%.As far as educational level was concerned, 17.7%, were High School graduates, some were two year college graduates 12%, 32% had a University or a 4-year college degree, and 16.5% had a Master's degree.The majority were employed full time/businesspersons (62%), while students comprised18.8% of respondents.Family total annual income had three categories: Under 20.000 (15.8%), 20.000-60.000 (48.1%) and over 60.000 (26.3%).
Reliability and exploratory analysis Cronbach
was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire, in particular for the part of tourist roles
=.81 and for the part of human needs =.85.A principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) were the exploratory analysis used to verify the tourist roles.PCA and quartimax rotation was used to verify the validity of TRPS questionnaire of the 34 variables of the tourist roles, for the specific sample.The analysis identified eight variables, which explain the 57.69% of the total variance.
Furthermore, to verify the validity of the TRPS, a multi-dimensional scaling model (MDS-SPSS PROXSCAL) was developed for the entire sample and for males and females, and it revealed that the tourists roles typology was according to each others distances at three dimensional spaces.The pair of variables that presented high loading at principal component analysis and logical proximity (grouping together) at dimensional International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 21 space, was accepted for measuring the same tourist role.The variables which satisfied the above criteria were sustained and the new variables
tourist roles were created.With regard to the tourist roles "Independent Mass Tourist" and "Escapist" were separated in subclasses, because while they presented high loadings in the analysis of
PCA, they abstained in the analysis of MDS, but presented positive cross-correlation between them (inter-item correlation matrix) (Table 1).
Distances of tourist behaviors for the each role.
1 Sun Lover relax (Q.1) sun (Q.17) 0,122 nature (Q.18) 0,385 2 Action Seeker crazy (Q.2) romantic (Q.19) 0,494
3 Anthropologist local (Q.3) culture (Q.20) 0,340
4 Archaeologist archaeological (Q.4) history (Q.21) 0,095
5 Organized Mass Tourist tour operator (Q.5)
organized (Q.22) 0,352
6 Thrill Seeker risk (Q.6) highs (Q.23) 0,000
7 Explorer adventure (Q.7) challenges (Q.24) 0,334 outdoor (Q.34) 0,344 8 Jetsetter celebrities (Q.8) exotic (Q.25) 0,261
9 High Class Tourist class (Q.12) luxury (Q.28) 0,009
10 Seeker spiritual (Q.9) myself (Q.26) 0,354 religious (Q.10) 0,351 11 Independent Mass Tourist I regular (Q.11) (Correlation of subcategory 0,144)
Independent Mass Tourist II hear (Q.27)
12 Drifter own (Q.13) hippie (Q.29) 0,292
13 Escapist I away (Q.14) (Correlation of subcategory 0,124)
Escapist II peaceful (Q.30)
14 Active Sport Tourist sports (Q.31) active (Q.15) 0,402 hunting (Q.32) 0,385 15 Educational Tourist educational (Q.16) skills (Q.33) 0,235
Tourist role preference Tourist role preference was then dichotomized into high and low preference (low 0 points 1-3 scale chose and high 1 points 4-5 scale chose) (See Table 2).Since most tourists had multiple tourist roles, the figures exceeded 100%.
Crosstabulations were used to determine cell size for tourist role preference by gender.
Each tourist role was cross-tabulated by gender.The analysis yielded in Table 2 shows tourist role preference percent for men and women separately.International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 22 Table 2.Percentages of each tourist role for men and women.
Tourist Roles Gender Total Male Female SNL 17,2% 20,8% 38% ACT 5% 3,4% 8,4% ANT 11,6% 13,8% 25,4% ARC 11,6% 13,3% 24,9% OMT 1,8% 2,3% 4,1% TRS 2,3% 2,3% 4,6% EXP 3,2% 2,5% 5,7% JST 1,6% 2% 3,6% HCT 2% 2,6% 4,6% SKR 3,2% 2,8% 6% IMT-I IMT-II 9% 8,4% 9,8% 9,1% 18,8% 17,5% DTR 0,8% 0,9% 1,7% ESC-I ESC-II 15,8% 6,1% 17,9% 6,3% 33,7% 12,4% AST 1,4% 0,6% 2% EDT 2,2% 2,1% 4,3% Confirmatory analysis
A confirmatory analysis was also used for the fit measure of the scale.This yielded a stress value of 0.02 and a squared correlation coefficient of 0.99.
The stress value is a goodness of fit measure between the data and the solution, with values from 0.00 to 0.15 indicating good fit (Stalans, 1995; Siomkos & Vasilikopoulou, 2005).The coefficient is a complementary concept measuring the proportion of variance not accounted for by the configuration.Values above 0.85 are generally accepted as indicating a good fit (Yiannakis & Gibson, 1992).
The three dimensional solution represented satisfactory the data as the above measures shown.
Tourist role preference at life eras Age was recorded according to Gibsons model (1994), in three life eras: Era 1: Initial Adultness (17-39 years), Era 2: Medium Adultness (40-59 years) and Era 3: Final Adultness (60 years and over).The preference between men and women for each tourist role for the three life eras was determined through the control of independence of values with the command Crosstabs.Each tourist role was checked via Crosstabs concerning the independent variables life eras (age) and gender and was created a table 2x3.
The International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation & Tourism 23 non parametric test Chi-square () was also used in order to determine the relation between tourist roles, age and gender.Crosstabs analysis was used for the control of null hypothesis.
The non parametric test (is a method of analysis that measures the frequency with which the individuals (lines) present themselves in each category of tourist roles (columns) and checks the statistical significance of divergence of observed and expected values.The level of significance was defined 0.05.
Sun Lover is the tourist, who is interested in relaxing and sunbathing in warm places with lots of sun, sand and ocean.According to () results, the difference in preference of tourist role Sun Love